United Nations Organization has remained the most representative intergovernmental organization of the globe whose role in global affairs is indispensable and irreplaceable by any other international and regional organization.
Formed in 24th October 1945 after the defunct League of Nations , the United Nations Organization has continued to make enormous and salient contributions in maintaining global peace and security, promoting cooperation among states and international developments which are the fundamental objectives of its formation.
However, it is an indisputable fact that only by international cooperation and strategic synergy can mankind overcome the effects of global and regional challenges. Therefore, for effective cooperative synergy and harmonious coexistence among the international communities, there is need for a sustainable and systematic reform of the structures of the United Nations. Strengthening the role of the UN in the new century and promoting the establishment of a just and reasonable international sociopolitical and economic order goes along with the trend of history which is in the interest of the global community.
To this effect, efforts should be made to uphold the purposes and principles of the UN charter by strengthening the authority and capacity of the UN security Council towards maintaining international peace and security.
To achieve this, it is essential for all UN member states to have unlimited rights to equal participation in global affairs which should be protected under the UN charter. Also, to restore balance and equity, there is need for expansion of the membership composition of the UN security council especially the permanent member seats of the Security Council where the under -represented developing regions of the World like Africa, Asia, Latin America and Caribbean would be made to assume the new permanent seats of the Security Council.
In view of the above, there is need for a regional rotational arrangement on the membership seat where the permanent membership seat will belong to regions rather than individual countries, this will ensure that all the states in each of the regions that make up the UN will occupy the permanent seat of the UN security council on rotational basis within a stipulated time frame.
Consequently, there is also need to review the veto powers of the five permanent members of the UN security Council. This has become imperative considering the excessive use of the veto power by the five permanent member States ( USA, Britain, Russia, China and France) for their narrow, national and regional interest. This has continued to alienate other members and the regions of the United Nations and undermines the reputation of the global organization as a whole. This excessive and arbitrary use of the veto power by the five permanent member States of the Security Council has continued to give them the most powerful and privileged position in world affairs and global politics which no doubt militates against the democratic aspiration of the organization.
Therefore, veto power should be limited on enforcement decisions and appointment of the UN Secretary General which should be made to be justified by the General Assembly.
The UN precedential practice of conducting voting within regional and geographic groupings where all the UN member states are active members of electoral group except Israel and Estonia, tends to marginalize Africa especially as the European powers and other regional blocs have become more consolidated and cohesive in their voting pattern. This makes Africa to lack regional identify and visibility within the United Nations. Also, the challenges of proliferation of biochemical and mass destruction weapons should be tackled through the creation of UN uniform Army. To achieve these reforms in the structure of the UN, there is need for a review of the UN charter which will be a pedestal for structural reform and capacity building in the United Nations.